Program seminar 30 October 2019
13:00 – 13.10 Welcome
Marc Gunter, IARC
Title: Obesity, metabolic dysfunction and cancer: Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Impact
Obesity is now an established risk factors for 13 different cancers and together with type 2 diabetes (T2D), could directly account for more than 5% cancer cases worldwide. Given the rising prevalence of obesity and T2D in nearly every region of the world, these conditions could represent a growing source of cancer in the coming years. Greater understanding of the biology underlying the link between obesity, metabolic health and cancers could provide opportunities to tailor specific preventive strategies or therapies e.g. drug repurposing, or behavioural interventions in susceptible individuals. In this presentation Marc Gunter will provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in research on the epidemiology of the obesity-cancer link and describe ongoing molecular epidemiologic, genetic and intervention studies aimed at furthering knowledge on the biological pathways underpinning the link between obesity, metabolic health and different cancers.
13:50 – 14:30
Rashmi Sinha, National Cancer Institute
Title:Role of microbiome in diet, obesity, and cancer
An evolving hypothesis is that dysbiosis, which is maladaptation of the commensal human microbial community, may contribute to disease development. Furthermore, cancer may be caused or prevented from an interplay between diet, gut bacteria, and microbial metabolites. In this talk Rashmi Sinha will cover the effect of dietary intervention of processed meat with and without possible anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals on fecal and oral bacteria. As gut microbiota may play a key role in relation to obesity and diet, she will discuss the relationships between BMI, gut microbiome diversity, and relative metabolite levels in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Sinha will present data on microbiome and colorectal cancer including microbial metabolites of bile acid. She will also present some methodologic data relevant to collecting samples for microbiome analyses.
14:30 – 15.10
Richard Landberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Fecal metabolomics - new possibilities to capture gut microbiota x diet interactions of importance for colorectal cancer
Diet and gut microbiota are important factors in colorectal cancer. Much focus has been put on the role of the gut microbiota composition, specific dietary components and some specific metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids. However, with the rapid development in metabolomics, large scale profiling of thousands of metabolites have made it possible to more comprehensively explore the role of metabolites that derive from diet, gut microbiota and their interaction for risk of developing colorectal cancer. Fecal samples offer great possibly to study such metabolites, but unfortunately, fecal samples are yet rarely available in biobanks from prospective cohort studies. Therefore, finding metabolite profiles in plasma that reflect gut microbiota x diet interactions of relevance to colorectal cancer is warranted. In this presentation Rikard Landberg will elaborate on how metabolomics and dietary x gut microbiota derived biomarkers can be used for improved understanding of colorectal cancer risk modelling and prevention. Ongoing activities in his lab will be presented.
Title:Gut microbiome as a colorectal cancer screening biomarker
Presence of certain bacteria in the gut are strongly associated with Colorectal Cancer (CRC). It is now possible to investigate all bacteria in the gut, - the microbiota, for its role in initiation and progression of colorectal cancer in large epidemiological studies and hence discover disease biomarkers.
This project is a sub-study within the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) trial that aims to discover gut microbiota biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening. We will also investigate interactions between CRC, lifestyle and microbiota to better guide prevention of CRC and increase the biomarker performance. Project web-page